Harappa is the earliest discovered type site in the Indus Civilization in South Asia and it was one of the most ancient cities of the world and was a major urban centre of the Indus or Harappan Civilization that flourished in Pakistan and part of western India some 5500 years ago. This civilization is the product of distinct regional cultures of farming communities and semi – nomadic pastoralists who lived along the foothills of Baluchistan and in the vast river plains of Punjab and Sindh.
Harappa was situated at the confluence of two streams of the Ravi river, which now flow 8 to 10 a kilometer north of the old bed of Ravi and is located about 27 K.M. south west of Sahiwal. It is considered the second largest city of the Indus Valley Civilization. The first mention of the site of Harappa is found in the travel account of Mr. Charles Masson, a British military deserter, who visited the site of Harappa in 1826 AD for the first time. After that Mr. Alexander Cunningham, a famous archaeologist paid visit to the site twice in 1853 AD and 1856 AD.